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Mice & Rats


House mouse adult’s head body length is 2.5-3.5 in (6.5-9 cm); tail length is 2.75-4 in (7-10 cm); weight is 0.5-1 ounce.


The animal has smooth fur, a pointed muzzle, small eyes, large furry ears, short and broad feet, and a dark scaly semi-naked tail. The adult droppings are 3-6 mm (1/8-1/4 in) long, rod-shaped with pointed ends but no ridges.


Varied, but usually light brown to dusty gray on top, light gray or cream on the belly.


To encourage bats to roost in your area, create a dark and quiet space with plenty of paper, fabric, insulation, packing materials, or cotton to build their homes.


House mice are not picky eaters and will feast on many foods, but seeds top their list. Their primary meals are typically at daybreak and dusk. In addition to deriving moisture from their food, they also drink water–more so when consuming protein. Out of all liquids, however, they prefer sweet ones the most.


Mice are social creatures. Males and females that are related get along well, but unrelated males can be aggressive toward one another. The size of their territory is small, and it’s marked with urine as a way to keep others out. Dominant males have the largest territories, while lower-ranking mice have smaller ones.

Mature house mice are quick to attack unfamiliar males and females. They reach maturity in 35 days but only have a lifespan of around 1 year, though some have been known to live up to 6 years old. Pregnancy lasts 18-21 days, with an average litter size of 5-8 young. A mother mouse can give birth 8 times in one year and wean 30-35 young mice.

Every 40-50 days, a female can have a litter. This means that there may be more than one litter in the nest at any given time. They see only 6 inches ahead and are color-blind. Additionally, they climb well, easily running up rough walls and along pipes, ropes, and wires. They jump 12 inches high vertically and 8 feet horizontally; sometimes, they swim! Finally, they can survive at 14 degrees F (-10 C).


The house mouse is hazardous to your health as they eat and contaminate stored food, transmit disease through droppings and urine, or even by biting you. They can also pass along diseases indirectly if fleas or mites that have been in contact with the mouse come into contact with humans.


An opening larger than 1/4 in (6mm) permits a house mouse to enter a structure.

Norway rat

The Norway rat also called the brown rat, or sewer rat, is a destructive pest that ruins food and property. In addition, they spread diseases to people and pets, making them a nuisance in any neighborhood they’re found.

Recognizing Rat Infestations

  • The presence of rats can be detected by the following:
  • Detection
  • Gnaw marks.
  • Droppings.
  • A front footprint with four toes in front of a longer hind print with five toes.
  • Nasty dark grease stains from pet fur rubbing against surfaces.
  • Shallow burrows under plants.
  • Runways made of bare soil outdoors and greasy walls indoors.
  • Nibbled food.

Rat Facts

Norway rats are hefty, brown rodents that usually weigh 11 ounces. They are approximately 13 to 18 inches long from nose to tail. Their fur is harsh and mostly brown on top, with faded black patches mixed in. The bottom side of these rats is typically a light grey or yellowish-white color.

Rats will eat nearly any food but prefer high-quality options such as meat and fresh grain. They require 1/2 to 1 fluid ounce of water daily when feeding on dry food. With keen taste, hearing, and sense of smell, rats can climb to find food or shelter; they only need an opening slightly bigger than half an inch to enter a building.

After mating, female rats will give birth anywhere from 6 to 12 young 21 to 23 days later. These younglings reach reproductive maturity at around 3 months old and are most active in breeding during spring and fall. On average, a female rat will have four to six litters per year but typically only live up to 18 months – though most die before even reaching one full year.

Rat Prevention and Control

If you keep your house clean and free of garbage, rats will have difficulty surviving. This involves keeping up with the housework, storing food properly, and removing clutter that might serve as rodent shelters (harborage).

Maintaining cleanliness around dog pens can help reduce the chances of a rat infestation. In addition, removing debris and clutter from homes makes it easier to spot signs of rats. Even with good sanitation, there is no guarantee that rats will be eliminated, making their environment less hospitable.